Lebanon Valley College Study Abroad

Amsterdam, Netherlands

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Saturday we arrived in Amsterdam, Netherlands. I love this city so much! I would definitely live here if I could. I wish there was a way to transport this city to the US. It is similar to Venice in that the city lies within many canals (it actually has more canals than Venice!). All the colors of the buildings have a combination of: black, ivory, deep purple, and maroon. If I were to describe it, I would say it is a very hipster-looking city. Bicycles are a big thing here in Amsterdam, and you have to be careful not to get run over by bikers while crossing the streets or walking on the sidewalks. Be sure to stay OFF the bike lane! On every canal (as seen in some of my pictures), bikes are parked along the fence, making it a very characteristic feature of Amsterdam.

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There were many differences from other European/American cities that we noticed right away when we were walking the streets. One was the public urinals that were right on the sidewalk! Some were covered, but others were not! When we talked to our driver leaving the city, he said that public urination is a problem here, so they built these urinals. If urination is truly a problem on the streets, I think the urinals are definitely a great idea!

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As I’m sure many of you know, Amsterdam is known for weed and prostitution! We saw through store windows clerks rolling weed. We also saw sex and prostitution museums! We didn’t go in them, although I’m sure they would’ve been very interesting. The driver also told us that smoking weed is just a normal thing like smoking a cigarette would be in the US. No one looks twice here. And if you are smoking a joint, and a police officer approaches, not to be afraid and throw it away, because they don’t care! I asked if he thought it was a problem that weed is legalized here and he said, “no, it’s a great thing. Every city should make it legal. More people want to do something that is illegal; the appeal is bigger.” He even stated that the majority of people who smoke in the city are tourists and not locals! He recalled one family who skipped their flight back to California so they could stay and smoke two more days!


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We had two great meals while here. We ate at a restaurant that supposedly had the best burgers.  I got a burger with: egg, bacon, cheese, onions, and a special sauce on it. For dinner on our last night, we ate at a restaurant called Jackets. They only serve salads, and baked potatoes (jackets are baked potatoes with the skin still on them). I got a baked potato with: chicken salad, herbs, cheese, bacon, and honey mustard. Definitely the best potato I have ever had. The road to obesity is definitely real on this European trip.

Next stop: Paris, France!

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Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous of the Netherlands

The city region has an approximate population of 2,431,000 people

Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, it become one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age (17th century). During that time, the city was the leading center for finance and diamonds.

The Amsterdam Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in the world.

Home to the Van Gogh Museum and Anne Frank House

Home to more than 60 miles of canals.

De Wallen is a designated area for legalized prostitution and is Amsterdam’s largest and most well known red light district. It consist of a network of roads and alleys containing several hundred small, one room apartments rented by sex workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights.

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Moving onto Berlin

Arriving in Berlin, Rachel and I had no idea what to expect, but we hit the ground running when we arrived Tuesday morning. We did a quick check in at our hostel, which was much nicer and probably more legitimate than our first, checked our maps, and headed to the city center on the S-Bahn.

We started at the Brandenburg Gate, an iconic and historic entrance to the city, and from there were walked through Tiergarten, Berlin’s largest public park once hunting lands for the royal family.  Near the entrance we found the Reichstag building, the former Parliment building which was nearly completely destroyed in WWII (like much of the city). Continuing through the park we admired the many monuments until finally we reached the most impressive: the Victory Column, built to commemorate a series of Prussian victories with Victoria, the Roman goddess of Victory atop.

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After walking nearly the entire length of Tiergarten (quite a feat, I might add!) we headed to Potsdamer Platz, a modern and iconic plaza in the city. Not far is the Topography of Terror, a museum describing the events of WWII through a detailed timeline beginning in the 1930’s. Interestingly, the museum is built on the grounds were the headquarters to the Gestapo and SS once stood. Additionally, it maintains one of the last 3 remaining segments of the Berlin Wall. Rachel and I spent over 3  hours in the Topography of Terror, absorbing as much as we could. By the time we left, it was nearly dinner time so we headed back to our hostel. It was located in a lively neighborhood of Berlin packed with restaurants and bars called Kreuzberg. We sampled a few German beers with our dinner and headed to bed exhausted from our first day in the new city. After our first full day in Berlin, it was evident this was a city unlike any other. Although a very historic, it is structurally a young city. After WWII a massive portion of the city needed to be restored and this work continues today. During the Cold War buildings (especially in East Germany) lay in ruin for decades. It wasn’t until after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 that many structures began to be rebuilt.

Wednesday we scheduled another Sandeman walking tour, hopeful that our tour guide for Berlin would be better than ours in Amsterdam. We met our tour group at the Brandenburg Gate and were lucky to receive a lively and knowledgable guide who took us on the best tour of our entire spring break trip.


Early in the tour, we stopped at the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in the heart of Berlin. Designed by Peter Eisenman, this impressive and thought-provoking grouping of cement slabs of varying sizes is completely open to the interpretation of the viewers. He left no explantation or reasoning behind its construction allowing visitors to interpret it as they feel suitable. Our energetic tour group grew quiet as we walked through the monument as we experienced mixed emotions.


Next, our guide led us to a small gravel parking lot. As it turns out, what is now an unassuming, ordinary car park was once the location of Hitler’s bunker where he spent the last 4 months of his life, hiding from the allied forces. While hiding here, Hitler and his wife married and then about a week later committed suicide together in April 1945.

We continued our city tour after a short break to warm up and grab a currywurst. Currywurst is one of the most famous foods served in Berlin, which I can best describe as a type of sausage served in a tomato sauce with yellow curry powder. A must have if you are going to Berlin!


After our intermission we headed to Checkpoint Charlie, the infamous crossing point of the Berlin Wall during the Cold War. As we neared the end of our tour we walked to Humboldt University. Einstein, Schrödinger, and Karl Marx along with many other notable figures have studied here!

IMG_4210After our guided tour, Rachel and I took the rest of the afternoon to explore more of Berlin on our own. We headed to The Berliner Dom, also known as the Berlin Cathedral. We climbed over 400 steps in order to reach the top of the dome and get a panoramic view of the expansive city.IMG_4264



The ongoing reconstruction of the city can be seen nearly everywhere throughout the city (note the crane in the distance).



After our long descent, we went to the Pergamon, Berlin’s most visited museum. Housing many fully reconstructed ancient structures, Middle East art, and the museum of Islamic art, we spent 3 hours admiring the vast collection. By the time we finished touring the museum, we were practically zombies, exhausted and starving.

Thursday, our last day in Berlin, Rachel and I headed to the East Side Gallery. The East Side Gallery is the largest remaining portion of the Berlin Wall today, which has been turned into a memorial for freedom. We strolled along the entire gallery, enjoying the colorful artwork and thinking about this memorial’s significance.

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From here, we went to Alexanderplatz, a large, modern, and bustling square. As one of Berlin’s most popular tourist stops, we were happy to end our adventures in Berlin here. Next, it was off to the airport to catch our flight to Copenhagen!



First stop: Amsterdam

To kick off spring break, Rachel and I headed to Amsterdam last Friday, eager to explore a new city. Unfortunately we lost nearly the entire day just traveling, so when we finally arrived in Amsterdam around 11pm we were exhausted and eager to get to bed in order to start Saturday bright and early. Our first night in a hostel was… let’s say a night to remember. Trying to be economical travelers, we booked a 20 bed mixed room in our hostel, with decent reviews and cheap rates. Although the hostel was exactly as described online when we booked it, I guess we just weren’t really prepared for what staying in a hostel was like. We were each assigned an old (but clean) bunk bed and shown the bathroom and shower stalls, and that was that! It took a bit adjusting to staying in a room with so many people from so many different places but we grew accustomed to it and of course found electrical outlets to charge our phones (a seemingly impossible task throughout our travels so far). Saturday we scheduled a free Sandemann walking tour of the city which showed us the main highlights of Amsterdam while also giving us some history to go along with it. Although our tour guide was not the best, we tried to absorb as much as we could in order to understand more about the history and culture of this beautiful and very unique city.


We saw Begijnhof, a small and completely secluded community of houses which a group of women established in 1150. Additionally there are 2 churches here, one called The Hidden Church which was 2 houses converted into a chapel for secret Catholic worship during times of oppression.


IMG_3766Amsterdam is famous for their crooked and leaning houses although unclear in this photo. Built almost entirely on marshy, wet land everything in the city is sinking! Buildings lean on one another and windows are on a considerable slant. The shutters frequently seen like the ones on this building indicate that it was once a warehouse used for storing products. The shutters closed to keep goods dry during the year. At the very top of this building (and nearly every other in Amsterdam) there are outcroppings with hooks. Because stairways were so narrow, they used the hooks to haul goods to the top floor where they could be kept dry for storage. Before thinking to construct outcroppings, many buildings were built with a considerable forward lean to prevent the goods from scraping the face of the building, you can imagine how crooked this city really is!

Amsterdam proves unlike most countries not only in history, but also for its allowance of the public sale and use of marijuana. While marijuana is actually illegal, it is sold nearly everywhere around the city and no one is concerned with enforcing the laws against it. Coffeeshops sell pot and cafes sell coffee, something we learned quite quickly on our stay. Even more unusual to us, prostitution is legal, and taken quite seriously by the community. As in many port cities in the past, when sailors would arrive in the city they were in search of someone to cure their…loneliness. Somehow, Amsterdam has managed to preserve this custom even today. The Red Light District is the name of the group of streets and alleyways where the heart of this business takes place. Taking pictures is strictly prohibited in this area (you risk having human urine thrown on you by the women working) in order to protect the women, which, might I add, have full benefits and health coverage through the government. Just as famous, Amsterdam has one of the most extensive canal systems in Europe, with four main canals encircling the heart of the city.

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Walking through the city, the canals look nearly identical so understanding the names of the four main canals proved an essential way for orienting ourselves. Two of the most famous museums in Amsterdam, the Rijksmuseum and the Van Gogh Museum, house many renowned artworks. With only a few days in the city to explore, Rachel and I chose to visit the Van Gogh museum which houses over 2,000 of Van Gogh’s paintings, drawings, and letters making it the largest collection of his works in the world.

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Next we headed to Vondelpark, a beautiful public park not too far from Museumplein (the name given to the area where most museums in the city are located including the Rijksmuseum and the Van Gogh). After a long first day, our feet were tired and we headed back to our hostel for a good night’s rest. Sunday proved a relaxing day as we strolled around Jordaan, a famous neighborhood where the working class and immigrants once lived. Next we visited the Cheese Museum and also the Tulip Museum, two notable products produced in Holland. We continued to explore and took a canal tour in order to learn more and see the city from a different perspective. We enjoyed basking in the warm sun and resting our feet while on the boat. After, we continued to wander around and visited Bloemenmarkt, a famous food and flea market which was unfortunately closed at the time. Walking almost 12 miles each day, we were exhausted and ended our night early to rest for Monday’s adventures in Zaanse Schans, an outlying community famous for their windmills. Rachel and I spent the entire day enjoying this beautiful community, visiting the wooden clog making museum and touring a working sawmill in one of the windmills!

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We were sad to leave this beautiful, historic, and unusual city Monday evening; however, knowing Berlin was next on our itinerary made leaving just a little bit easier.



Berlin, Germany

Thursday we headed to another country: Germany! We were in a Harry Potter train again, but this time there were no beds. The guy who checked our ticket started yelling at us for not putting the date on our Eurorail passes. He continued to yell at us in front of everyone saying we would have to pay a 250-euro fine each. A fine for not putting the date on our passes before getting on the train! No one told us prior; now we know. He ended up just doing it for us.

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Saturday morning we had a six-hour tour of the Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp. Before getting on the train, we met four other PT majors from San Diego, California. They were undergrads and thought we were the coolest people for doing a clinical over in Italy and wanted to do one too!

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Brandenburg Gate

Brandenburg Gate


Our tour guide was from New Zealand (and was really cute too!) and moved to Berlin when he met his German wife. On the way home from the camp, he gave us suggestions on where to go, what to eat, and what to see during the rest of our stay.

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After the tour, we went to see the Berlin wall. There are parts of the wall still standing, and we were advised to go to the portion covered in graffiti by the river. A wired fence protects some of the wall while other parts are open and can be touched by passersby. Tourists were writing their names on the wall as they walked passed!

Sign on gate into concentration camp "work will set you free"

Sign on gate into concentration camp “work will set you free”

LVC at Berlin wall

LVC at Berlin wall


We took a wrong turn while heading to dinner and ended up in a large park. This was probably one of the scariest experiences I’ve had thus far. About a 100 guys lined the sidewalks of the park and approached/tried to talk to us.  We could smell weed and saw a guy right in front of us snort something straight from another guy’s hand! Luckily there were families with children walking through the park too, so we weren’t alone.

Next stop: Amsterdam, Netherlands!

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Capital of Germany

3.5 million people

After WWII, the city was divided into East & West Berlin surrounded by the Berlin wall (1961-1989). Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin was once again designated as the capital of the united Germany.

Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp:

Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.

Executions did take place, but only after the war started. It was made as a work camp.

The main gait (Guard Tower “A”) held a 8mm maxim machine gun that could point down the lines of each of the barracks. It also housed the offices of the camp administration.

On the front entrance the gates held the infamous slogan “Arbeit Macht Frei” (work will set you free).

About 200,000 people passed through the camp between 1936 and 1945.

50,000 were brutally murdered.

First camp established under Heinrich Himmler

Until its closure in March 1950 another 60,o00 were captive here of which 12,000 died of similar catastrophic conditions of hunger, physiological, and physical exhaustion.

Sachsenhausen was intended to set a standard for other concentrations camps, both in its design and the treatment of its prisoners.

**I don’t really want to share too much more concerning concentration camps and the treatment because I advise all readers to travel to one and experience it personally. Being in one definitely gives you a different kind of feeling and a special appreciation for life.

Famous Prisoners held in Sachsenhausen:

Georg Elser:  opponent of Nazis who attempted to kill Adolf Hitler on his own in November 1939. He was later moved to Dachau concentration camp.

  • (Inspired the movie 13 minutes-look up how and why this attempt failed! History was changed forever because of just 13 minutes!)

Yakov Dzhugashvili:  Joseph Stalin’s eldest son, was briefly imprisoned and then died here in 1943. He was kept alive thinking he would be a good collateral during the war, but Stalin later claimed that he did not have a son, and he became unimportant.


Reflections of the Past: Germany

From the safety of today we look back and marvel at the past. Sometimes we weep, but often we just stare, voyeurs into the lives of those who have gone before us, a set of omniscient eyes viewing from above. At a distance we observe individual triumphs and failures, choosing which moments to view and which to fast forward as we hurry on to the next chapter. We can scene select at will, an untouchable intrusion with the power to determine what is important and what can be cast away. With decades on our side we insulate ourselves from the worst moments, turning away from the screen when it becomes too much, too hard, and too heavy.

Germany presents one of the most tenuous borders between the past and the present, a deliberate shortening of distance and weakening of barriers to allow for the personification of an otherwise overwhelming amount of statistical information. The last century of the country’s history is complicated and marred by suffering, with the numbers of the persecuted–living and dead–ranging in the millions. At this level the numbers are impossible to fathom, to comprehend as individual lives lost, and rightly so; for the living, this is our survival technique. The true impact of that many lives ending and that much suffering is an unsustainable madness for the empathetic nature of the human mind. Many of Germany’s key historical sites and memorials maintain a careful balance of allowing the viewer to feel while preventing them from feeling too much.

This is not to say that the illustrious nation hides its history. It is impossible to move within the the nation’s capitol without encountering  a memorial, monument, or museum. Even Berlin’s streets pay tribute to the past; photographs of the city after World War II prove the widespread decimation, which affect their construction today. Workers literally rebuilt the city from the rubble, using the shells of bombed-out buildings as the framework for the future structures and the excess of rubble to reconstruct the rest of the edifice.


The East Side Gallery, one of the few remaining physical portions of the Berlin Wall, sits a short walk from the S-Bahn station Ostbahnhof and the U-Bahn station Warschauer Strasse. Its profile is dwarfed by the surrounding skyscrapers, Mercedes-Benz Arena, and other swooping signs of modernity. This juxtaposition makes the remnants’ presence even more surreal, evidence from a time unfathomable to this generation of autonomy and technological freedom. At breaks in the Wall visitors can step from one side to the other and walk away from the crowds down to peace of the riverbank, a privilege many Berliners could  never imagine. Hundreds died attempting to achieve what now is done on a whim.

Amid the smiling tourists angling for the perfect picture is an underlying sense of pain. It is easy to forget within the modern cityscape and in some of brighter, more whimsical panels on the Wall. In many, however, the political satire betrays a raw anger and in the darker panels, the senseless pain caused by warring nations and their leaders. As they suffered, those in the East could see the prosperity and development of the West. This feeling seeps into the streets and chokes viewers with the image of relatives suddenly split between the sides of a nation divided. From behind the Wall they could see the city on the other side and know that their loved ones were there, but never share a hug or a family meal. One of the country’s many examples of the danger of ideological manifestation and the compounding potency of words.

The idealized quote from F. Scott Fitzgerald’s most famous work, The Great Gatsby, states that you cannot repeat the past. The specific meaning of this statement is ambiguous: determining whether it is impossible to repeat the past or possible but should not be done is a decision left to the discretion of the reader. Germany’s history stands as a stark warning to both, and as a reminder of the need for constant vigilance and self-awareness. While the endless barrage of cold, hard facts is horrifying, even worse is its antithesis: the human element and the subtle development of the militant nation-state.

Beneath the numbers are the accounts of ordinary humans beings who wanted economic stability, sought a strengthened state, and rallied behind the political figurehead who promised these things. To look into their lives is to look into a mirror of timeless themes and relevant needs and to observe the tragedy of inaction and political hatred. Within the institutionalized insanity is a dangerous normalcy, before the country’s devolution into absolute madness. For this, the world paid an unspeakable cost.

Prague, Czech Republic

The word on the street is that Prague is one of the most beautiful cities on the planet. I would have to agree with that. It definitely tops my favorite cities thus far. The architecture is amazing, and I love the color and detail in every building.

Charles Bridge

Charles Bridge

Stamps watch after the Prague Astronomical Clock

Stamps watch after the Prague Astronomical Clock

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On Tuesday, we arrived in Prague around 5pm. Kristin found a great restaurant recommended online so we decided to walk across the bridge from our hotel to find it. We decided to call to make reservations to make sure, but we didn’t think they would speak English. Contrary to belief, they answered the phone in English and spoke it really well (see facts below). The restaurant had the best meals for the best prices.

I got: pork tenderloin marinated in mustard and herbs, mashed potatoes with bacon and buttermilk, roasted Brussels sprouts and sage sauce.

Kristin got chicken breast stuffed with Prague ham and sun-dried tomatoes, served with roasted fresh vegetables with herbs.

All the desserts looked wonderful, so we decided to get three! The special pineapple, mango, and coconut cake was only for that day, so we bought two more to take home! Total cost for two main meals and 5 desserts was 37 euros! The prices for food and alcohol were outrageously cheap here. It was wonderful.

Apple Strudel

Apple Strudel

On Wednesday, we walked to the Prague castle and then headed to Old Town, Charles Bridge, and the city center. We ate the famous donut cones (apple, walnut, raisin, whipped cream, strudel). We also saw the famous astronomical clock tower. I bought a Stamp watch that resembled the tower. It is one of the most unique watches I’ve seen, and it will always remind me of Prague. We ate a great restaurant for dinner near our hotel and headed to the five-story mall that held over 200 stores after because it was raining.

Next stop: Berlin, Germany!!!

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Prague Astronomical Clock

Prague Astronomical Clock

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Capital and largest city of the Czech Republic

14th largest city in the European Union

Home to about 1.26 million people, while its larger urban zone is is estimated to have a population of nearly 2 million people.

Lowest unemployment rate in the European Union

Largest city in Central Europe in which over 50% of residents speak fluent English, making it the second language after Czech

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Salzburg, Austria

Monday morning we met our pickup at our hotel lobby to take us to the Wien train station to head to our next destination…Salzburg, Austria! Known for the famous American made movie, Sound of Music. At first, the driver took us to the wrong train station (luckily we checked and we had plenty of time to get to the correct one-ALWAYS CHECK!!!).

Once we found our train, we hopped on the wrong coach thinking we could make our way to the correct one via inside the train. This was not the case. We met another lady who was in the same boat, and needed to get to the same coach as us. She was from Switzerland and she was willing to help us! We stayed and talk to her for 45 minutes until we were able to get off and switch train cars.

  • She told us that she has lived all over the world including the UK and Vietnam. She has 10 children, and I would have to guess she is only in her 50s!!! We exchanged emails, and she told us we could stay with her anytime we travel to Switzerland. She even gave us two essential oils that we could smell when we become stressed during our trip. She recommended the Sachetorte and the Mozart chocolate marzipan balls when we arrive in Salzburg. We took her advice, and they were delicious!
Festung Hohensalzburg

Festung Hohensalzburg 

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We also forgot to get our EuroRail pass stamped before getting on our first train. So technically our train ticket was NOT VALID. They let us go, and we ended up getting it stamped in Salzburg before heading back to Vienna. (ADVISE: check everything ahead of time to make sure everything is completed & valid).

Our second hotel was even better than the first! It was a rainy, cold day in Salzburg but we still did our daily walking. We walked around the city and then made the hike up to the Festung Hohensalzburg (fortress). We paid 9 euros for the basic tour pass and saw so much! We also got a great view overlooking the city from the top of the towers.

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Before making our way back to the hotel to get dry & warm, we stopped by Mozart’s House! The only thing that was left that was still the same was the doorbells which when rung, you could see it go all the way from the door up to the respective apartment.

We looked up a cheap meal for dinner and found a place on trip advisor that got great reviews. We were the only people in the restaurant the whole night (probably because we went at 6 at night). I got a beef hot dog with cabbage with a mustard/horseradish sauce. It came with lettuce and tomato and a side of fries. Kristin got a chicken dog with a mango-ketchup sauce. Each came on a toasted bun. They were both absolutely amazing and probably the best hot dogs I have ever eaten.


Next stop: Prague, Czech Republic!

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Marzipan Mozart Balls

Marzipan Mozart Balls

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Salzburg translates to “Salt Fortress” in Bavarian which is what the city is known

Salzburg is the fourth largest city in Austria

Birthplace of the 18th century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Setting for the musical play, The Sound of Music

Vienna, Austria

Friday we headed to Perugia to catch our train to Rome. On the train, we met a really nice Italian guy who was studying in Rome. We communicated in English and Italian so we both could practice our lesser-known languages. He helped me with my bags, and once at the station, he showed us exactly where to catch our next train.
We exchanged numbers, and I plan on keeping in touch so I can continue to use my Italian!


Danube River

Danube River

Schonbrunn Palace

Schonbrunn Palace


We took an overnight train from Rome to Vienna that took 16 hours. The train was very cool; it was just like the Harry Potter movies. There was a tiny room where 6 people could sit (3 on each side facing each other) but then 3 beds per side could be pulled out (bunk bed style). Luckily for us, we only had one other couple sharing our room from Austria. We had some late night conversation that consisted of their thoughts of Americans. They didn’t want to comment!


Austrian Parliament

Austrian Parliament

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When we arrived there was German language everywhere!!! I can understand some Italian and Spanish, but German is very different. There were still some people we met who spoke Italian, and on Sunday night at the gelateria they spoke Italian, which made me feel right at home!

Saint Stephen's Cathedral

Saint Stephen’s Cathedral

Staatsoper (State Opera)

Staatsoper (State Opera)



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Saturday and Sunday we went to a winter carnival in front of City Hall. They had a ice skating in front of the Hall, but instead of a big rink, they had it in the form of a running path! So ice skaters were skating on a path in and out of the trees. The festival had the best food! I had Raffaelo roasted nuts, Spinatspatzle, a form of bread pudding, and hot chocolate (which was said that it would be the best). I got caramel in mine and it was delicious.



Vienna Hot Chocolate

Vienna Hot Chocolate

City Hall

City Hall

Sunday we got up and had an amazing breakfast in our hotel. We left at 9 am and didn’t return until 8pm. We walked through this ginormous park where they were hosting a Half marathon, 10K, and a speed walking competition! I have never seen a speed walking competition and it was quite exciting! Then we exited the park and walked along the Danube river. We walked 44,000 steps/17.5 miles around the city!!! I wore boots (which I don’t advise for a 17 mile walk). We ended the night in an Austrian restaurant where we enjoyed Wiener Schnitzel and roasted potatoes.


Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria with a population of 1.8 million (2.6 million within the metropolitan area).

It is the 7th largest city by population within city limits in the European Union.

Today it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin.

Apart from being regarded as the City of Music, it is also known as the City of dreams because it is home to the world’s first psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud.

Vienna is known for its quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, it was ranked first (tie between Vancouver, Canada, and San Francisco) for the world’s most livable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second behind Melbourne, Australia.

The English name Vienna is borrowed from the Italian name Vienna. The German name for it is Wien.


Next stop: Salzburg, Austria!

PT Clinical Week #8

Our last week has come to a close, and it didn’t disappoint! I was able to increase my caseload and try new things with patients!


For two afternoons, I learned how to operate and use the Lokomat (a body weight support system combined with a machine that moves the lower legs on a treadmill). It is so complicated! There are so many things that you have to do before you even get the patient! During the examination, you have to get measurements of the legs and enter it into the computer. Then every time that patient comes, you have to manually set the machine to those measurements so it fits the patient perfectly. Each patient does it for 20-30 minutes depending on how much they can tolerate. The type of patients that can use the Lokomat varies. Some patients have some movement in their legs, so the level of assistance that the Lokomat provides is less and vice versa. Even though most patients will probably never walk again, it can be good for maintaining passive range of motion and reducing spasticity. Also, if the patient has some weight-bearing on the treadmill, that is good for maintaining bone strength.

There was a big screen set up in front of the patient that they could play games. Many of the games had an avatar who performed the same movements as them. The object of the game was to catch different items on the screen. In order to turn, the patient could use what little movement they had to change directions on the screen. There were graphs on the computer monitor that showed how much assistance the patient needed, and if their movement was corresponding with the machine or not. If the patient were cognitively aware, they would be able to adjust.


One of the coolest things I saw was the “Indego”.  It was invented in Germany, but Italy is the first nation in the WORLD to get it approved and use it in their clinics. It is like the Exo-skeleton (which is also a body movement walking system) but much smaller and lighter weight. All you need to be able to use it is passive movement of your legs. The level of assistance the machine gives can vary from patient to patient. There is a computer in the hip and the knee and the total weight is 12lbs.


Our hospital/clinic was on the news because there was a patient who was getting married, and he was to use the Indego to walk down the aisle!!!! It’s amazing what technology can do. The ultimate goal is that because it’s so compact, lightweight, and easy to use, that patients will be able to use it at home. It costs about $80,000 so those who can afford it can purchase it; otherwise,  the hope is that as the price goes down, they will become more affordable.

One of the Indego patients was a 47-year-old woman who also had surgery on her spine and no longer has use of her legs. She uses the Indego almost every day. I also saw an Indego examination of an anesthesiologist who fell from a small ladder and injured C3-C5. He regained use of his arms and trunk, but not his legs.


On Wednesday, Kristin and I presented our inservice, “Mobilization with movement” (Mulligan Concept). We spoke in English incorporating some Italian, but our Powerpoint was ENTIRELY in Italian. It went awesome, and all the therapists were really impressed. We even included two demonstrations of the techniques. Normally in the US we bring in food for the inservices we present, but here they had a spread of pizza, paninis, and dessert!


My favorite patient was always treated in her room because she had a trach and an NG tube. In the last two weeks, we progressed to standing and walking! Her hair was always crazy when we started getting her out of bed, so I would comb it for her (one of my favorite things). The last week my therapist and I would tell her I was leaving and traveling Europe and then heading back to America. On Friday, I told her “ e stato un piacere” (It was nice to meet you), buona fortuna (good luck), and even asked her to come back to my house! After all this, she looked up at my CI and says “ill see her Monday??” We had to explain I was leaving…forever. ;(


Before leaving, one of the CI’s told us, “Buona Vita”, meaning have a “good life”. Contrary to belief, it’s a term used instead of goodbye, in the possibility of reuniting in the future even though we are a world apart. I love it, and I will be back. I promise.


PS: Next post from Vienna, Austria!

A Sunday in Retiro Park

The Parque del Buen Retiro is Madrid´s proverbial oasis in the midst of the captial´s overpopulated and semi-polluted streets. The Museo del Prado and a number of the city´s other famous monuments overlook the park, designed by felipe IV in the 17th century as a refuge for kings, queens, and the many members of their courts. Opened to the public in 1868, today the park serves as a harbor for madrileños and tourists alike. Particularly popular on Sundays, the park´s main pathways are nearly as populated as the city´s streets. Despite this, a stroll through the park provides the odd sensation of being surrounded by a flurry of activity as well as a sense of complete relaxation, calm, and peace.



The life of the park centers around its artificial lake and the adjacent El Monumento a Alfonso XII de España, a massive bronze and marble commemorative statue to the king who laid the groundwork for a stable, constitutional monarchy in Spain. An equestrian sculpture of the king, flanked by four leonian guards, stands tall among weary travelers that rest at his feet.


At periodic intervals throughout the  park, grandiose sculptures and palatial buildings sit eclipsed by the ever-present greenery. One such masterpiece is the Palacio de Velazquez.

Named for its architect, Ricardo Velazquez Bosco, el Palacio is the only surviving building of the pavilions built between 1881 and 1883 for Spain´s National Exhibition of mining, metallurgy, ceramics, and glass-making industries. The historical influence of muslo-romano culture is evident in the structural elements and the intricate tiles that adorn the front facade of the building.


Crest one of the Park’s subtle hills and catch a glimpse of a glistening luminescence; walk towards it and the trees open on one of the park’s crowning achievements, the Palacio de Cristal. Nothing matches the sight of the trees parting on the reflection of a thousand small, glittering suns–a collection of daytime stars, trapped on the earth in panes of glass. Originally built to exhibit exotic flora and fauna from the Philippines, the Palace now houses contemporary art exhibitions. Hundreds of dinosaur-like bones hang suspended from the ceiling as part of the current piece, only adding to the building’s ethereal atmosphere.


Tucked away in a one of the corners of the Park and hidden behind an unassuming brick wall sits a series of gardens reminiscence of a scene from Alice in Wonderland  with its marbled floors and whimsical gazebos.  The large trees that dominate the park center abruptly cease at the wall’s opening, flooding the symmetrical gardens with a partial illusion of expansive spaciousness and amplifying the intensity of its contrasting colors. The numerous peacocks that freely roam the gardens contribute to the fanciful environment.

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Many are familiar with American writer Ernest Hemingway’s infamous quote on the frenetic energy of Madrid after-hours: “Nobody goes to bed in Madrid until they have killed the night.” Let it be said that no one should leave Madrid without spending a leisurely afternoon exploring the wonders of Buen Retiro Park.